Categories
Environmental Science

All figures/tables must be referred to in the text, but focus on the important points, rather than just writing, for example, “the results of the structure analyses are shown in figure 3”.

Molecular Ecology Practical Report
Assessment Notes: Analyse real-world data and report results
No. words: 1200-1500
Topic and analysis overview – Melichrus
You will conduct analyses (r studio) and write a report addressing the following topic.
Melichrus R.Br. is an Australian endemic genus of shrubs in the heather family, Ericaceae. There are currently six accepted species in the genus that have been described on the basis of morphological differences, four of which have broad distributions in eastern Australia. Morphological variability within those species (M. adpressus, M. urceolatus, M. erubescens and M. procumbens) suggest that there may be unrecognised species of Melichrus that will be revealed through integration of molecular and morphological methods. The two newest species, M. hirsutus and M. gibberagee, have very narrow distributions and appear to meet the criteria for conservation listing. If undiscovered species are also narrow endemics, they are unlikely to receive the protection they deserve unless they are recognised as distinct evolutionary lineages.
PhD student Helen Kennedy is revising the taxonomy of Melichrus using an integrative approach. They include a subset of her data focusing on populations that key out to four related species, with metadata describing their sampling locations and field determinations. With this data, you are to address the following questions:
1. Does molecular evidence support the current taxonomy? Which species are supported and which are not?
2. Are there distinctive genetic groups that may require description as new taxa?
3. Is there evidence of inbreeding, and does it represent a threat to any accepted or putative taxa?
4. Is there evidence of hybridisation, and does it represent a threat to any accepted or putative taxa?
You will need to examine the data, and/or appropriate subsets, using population summary statistics, ordination and non-hierarchical clustering to investigate these questions.
Field and laboratory methods (include this in your Methods section)
Population samples of the study group for this report (M. adpressus, M. gibberagee, M. hirsutus and M. urceolatus) were collected from 27 sites, and leaf samples for DNA analysis were freeze-dried or dried on silica gel. Additional samples of other species complexes and outgroup taxa were included in the 571 samples that were sent to Diversity Arrays (Canberra, Australia) for reduced-representation sequencing and genotyping via the DArTseq procedure. A total of 186 samples were extracted from the larger dataset to address our research questions. The resulting single nucleotide polymorphiosm (SNP) matrix was filtered using the statistical software R (R Core Development Team, 2020) and the package dartR (Gruber, Unmack, Berry, & Georges, 2018). Loci with repeatability of <97% were excluded, as were those with a call rate (i.e. non-missing genotypes) <95% and minor allele frequencies <0.05. Individuals with call rates less than 90% were also excluded, and ‘secondary’ SNPs within each DArTseq locus were removed, keeping the one with the highest minor allele frequency.
Practical report layout
Write a research report based on your results, in the following format. There should be no Abstract.
• The Introduction should be very brief (max. 250-300 words), but should put the study in context and state the research questions or hypotheses that will be addressed.
• The Methods section should give enough detail for the study to be replicated, but that can include references to other papers for details. Check the 'Field and laboratory methods' (below) section of the 'Topic and analysis overview' for more guidance. You need to state the samples used for each analysis, the origin of the methodology (i.e., the original paper in which it was published, which can usually be found in the software documentation), the software (and version), and the parameters or options used. It should also make it clear how each analysis addresses the research questions or hypotheses.
• In the Results section, show the results with text, figures and tables. Make sure that everything is clearly labelled, and both figures and tables are able to stand on their own; i.e. combined with its caption, each should have enough information to understand the results contained therein. The text should summarise the results and highlight those that are surprising, interesting or are of particular relevance to the hypotheses. All figures/tables must be referred to in the text, but focus on the important points, rather than just writing, for example, "The results of the STRUCTURE analyses are shown in Figure 3".
• The Discussion section should identify the key results, in relation to the research questions and hypotheses, and discuss their significance in the context of the study and more broadly. Any caveats relating to the design or analysis should also be considered. Finish with a concluding paragraph briefly stating the main findings and conclusions, and relating them back to the aims.
References
Cite any sources, including software (R studio), using the referencing style of Molecular Ecology (embedded link for your reference). As noted in the Author Guidelines, you need to look at a recent issue of the journal for reference formats. There is an Endnote Style for the journal, but there is no guarantee that it is correct (you still need to check each reference). N.B. For journal articles, give volume and page numbers, not web addresses. A small minority of journals are online-only, and those are an exception: find an example of an article citing a PLoS journal (PLoS One or PLoS Genetics).
Gruber, B., Unmack, P. J., Berry, O. F., & Georges, A. (2018). dartr: An R package to facilitate analysis of SNP data generated from reduced representation genome sequencing. Molecular Ecology Resources, 18(3), 691-699. doi:10.1111/1755-0998.12745
R Core Development Team. (2020). R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Version 4.0.2. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Retrieved from http://www.R-project.org
More instructions, r studio script, original data and marking rubric will be attached.

Categories
Environmental Science

Write an article on the topic of “pests and pesticides”

Write an article on the topic of “Pests and Pesticides”
upd: Dear writer,
The difference between the original and your article must be more than 80%. You can use the following link to cross check:
https://countwordsfree.com/comparetexts

Categories
Environmental Science

The heading should be indicative of the major section to follow.

I​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​nstructions
Part 7: Scenario-Based Case Study
For this assignment, you will submit Part 7 of the scenario-based case study course project, which is due in Unit VIII. You should evaluate and revise the recommendations, as needed, during the process for each previous unit as you learn more during the progression of this course. Please continue to draw upon your imagination to think creatively on potential concerns with fire and explosive hazards, fire controls, and fire and emergency management. Look at fire protection technology in a holistic way that is significantly different from what was previously designed by thinking in isolation. You will evaluate and develop recommendations to resolve potential fires in the future.
Section I
As you make suggestions to improve the fire protection system, identify the components and accessories common to fire pump installations needed for the rebuild of the warehouse. Refer back to the background information, if needed, to provide you with the necessary material to identify the basic components common to fire protection for the City of Washington Distribution Warehouse. In addition, review the Points to Ponder Scenario in the Unit VII Lesson for additional information as well as Chapter 6 in the textbook.
This assignment is not looking for compliance with building codes nor expecting you to be a fire protection system designer. However, the purpose of this assignment is for you to apply the concepts and knowledge you learned in this unit as you begin writing your final project covering protection systems ​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​that will detect, contain, control, and extinguish a fire. In addition, this assignment provides you with the opportunity to use your skills, expertise, and experience to enrich your response.
Prepare a well-organized narrative addressing fire pumps and including your recommendations after reviewing the background information and the information above. Your discussion will consist of your evaluation of the previous fire pump and recommendations for the rebuild of the warehouse, based on information from the textbook and any additional research.
Section II
As we saw in the Points to Ponder Scenario in the unit lesson, electrical surge protection devices could have mitigated damage or even loss to the pump driver. Describe the benefits that surge protection devices provide for fire pump components and systems against the damages of voltage surges.
For this assignment, you will write a two-page narrative (one page per section) supporting your position. Use APA level one headings for each section. The heading should be indicative of the major section to follow. You must have a title page and references page. You may use information from reputable, reliable journal articles, case studies, scholarly papers, and other sources that you feel are pertinent. You should use at least three sources, one of which must be your textbook. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations following proper APA style.
Resources
The following resource(s) may help you with this assignment​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​.

Categories
Environmental Science

We believe we choose freely to brush our teeth nightly but it can feel strangely uncomfortable, even impossible, to go to bed without brushing.

h​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​ttps://watchdocumentaries.com/addicted-to-plastic/
Habits are spoken of as behaviors that people engage in automatically that are difficult to change. Think of the habit of brushing your teeth. We believe we choose freely to brush our teeth nightly but it can feel strangely uncomfortable, even impossible, to go to bed without brushing. Sure we could do that for one night – but could we give up brushing our teeth for two years?
Now think of more serious habits like, for instance, addictions to drugs or alcohol. People are blamed for these kinds of behaviors because we believe they could choose differently. However, if something is a ​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​habit it is automatic and when things are automatic they seem to be without choice.
Human practices (i.e., habits) around industrial production and population-level consumption are the cause for the increase of global temperatures by 1.0?C since 1850 and the reason why global temperatures are projected to increase 1.5?C to 2.0?C over 19th century levels by 2050.
The argument of this week’s documentary focuses on only one area of economic activity. It argues that industry has caused us to become addicted to plastic because plastics play a critical role in our consumption economy. Do you agree or disagree with this thesis? Why or why not​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​?

Categories
Environmental Science

I​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​nstructions Part 6: Scenario-Based Case Study For this as

I​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​nstructions
Part 6: Scenario-Based Case Study
For this assignment, you will submit Part 6 of the scenario-based case study course project, which is due in Unit VIII. You should evaluate and revise the recommendations as needed during the process for each previous unit as you learn more during the progression of this course. Please continue to draw upon your imagination to think creatively on potential concerns with fire and explosive hazards, fire controls, and fire and emergency management. Look at fire protection technology in a holistic way that is significantly different from what was previously designed by thinking in isolation. You will evaluate and develop recommendations to resolve potential fires in the future.
Section I
As you make suggestions to improve the standpipe and hose systems, refer back to the background information, if needed, to provide you with the necessary material to identify the basic components common to fire protection for the City of Washington Distribution Warehouse. In addition, review the Points to Ponder Scenario in the Unit VI Lesson for additional information.
This assignment is not looking for compliance with building codes nor expecting you to be a fire protection system designer. However, the purpose of this assignment is for you to apply the concepts and knowledge you learned in this unit as you begin writing your final project covering protection systems, which will detect, contain, control, and extinguish a fire. This assignment provides you with the opportunity to use your skill​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​s, expertise, and experience to enrich your response.
Prepare a well-organized narrative addressing the standpipe and hose systems and your recommendations after reviewing the background information and information above. Your discussion will consist of your evaluation of the previous standpipe and hose system, including classification and components, using information from the textbook and any additional research needed for your recommendations for the rebuild of the warehouse, including any impairments to standpipe and hose systems.
Section II
Read the Points to Ponder Scenario in the unit lesson before responding to this section. What are the various factors surrounding the ignition of cooking oil fires involving intermediate bulk container totes? What is the most effective extinguishing method for cooking oil fires? Consider the fire dynamics of cooking oil on the design of fire protection.
For this assignment, you will write a two-page narrative (one page per section) supporting your position. Use APA level one headings for each section. The heading should be indicative of the major section to follow. You must have a title page and references page. You may use information from reputable, reliable journal articles, case studies, scholarly papers, and other sources that you feel are pertinent. You should use at least three sources, one of which must be your textbook. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations following proper APA style​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​.

Categories
Environmental Science

D​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​raft 1, end of Week 3 (due by Monday by noon): You will c

D​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​raft 1, end of Week 3 (due by Monday by noon): You will choose one essay topic (see list in syllabus) and compose an introduction to it in one paragraph (1/2 page) written in narrative format (NO BULLET POINTS) describing three important moments from the history of the topic from 1960+.
Topi​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​c: Is human population (growth?) an environmental problem? Should government
regulate population? Do we have an obligation to stop increasing the world’s human
biomass? Why or why not? What sorts of methods are morally allowable and
practically feasible to control human population, if any​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​?

Categories
Environmental Science

Learning Goal: I’m working on a environmental science question and need guidance

Learning Goal: I’m working on a environmental science question and need guidance to help me learn.
Instructions: Please follow these instructions to complete this assignment:
1. carefully read the instructions for the Week 7 assignment, PowerPoint Presentation;
2. determine your topic and begin research on it;
3. form an outline (example below);
4. include a references section with at least 5 references; and,
5. ask any related question by sending me a message.
Outline Template:
I. Title and name
A. Introduction
1. State environmental problem and give background
a. Background details
b. Background details
c. Continue as needed . . .
2. Environmental problem
a. Environmental problem details
b. Environmental problem details
c. Continue as needed . . .
B. Solutions to problem
1. Solution 1
a. Explain
b. Explain
c. Continue as needed . . .
2. Solution 2
a. Explain
b. Explain
c. Continue as needed . . .
C. Costs & Benefits
1. Costs of Solution 1
a. State and explain
b. State and explain
c. State and explain
d. State and explain
e. More if needed . . .
2. Benefits of Solution 1
a. State and explain
b. State and explain
c. State and explain
d. State and explain
e. More if needed . . .
3. Costs of Solution 2
a. State and explain
b. State and explain
c. State and explain
d. State and explain
e. More if needed . . .
4. Benefits of Solution 2
a. State and explain
b. State and explain
c. State and explain
d. State and explain
e. More if needed . . .
D. Recommendations
1. State better solution (can be a combination of the solutions)
2. Explain using costs/benefits gathered
3. Explain using costs/benefits gathered
4. Explain using costs/benefits gathered
5. More if needed . . .
E. References (at least 5)
1. APA format
2. APA format
3. APA format
4. APA format
5. APA format
6. More if needed . . .
Week 7 Assignment: You are to present the following:
a limited/focused environmental issue or problem;
2, and only 2, solutions to the problem – fully explained;
at least 4 costs and 4 benefits associated with the solution 1 – explain each cost/benefit;
at least 4 costs and 4 benefits associated with the solution 2 – explain each cost/benefit; and,
a determination of the best solution, based on your analysis of the costs and benefits – incorporate the costs/benefits to argue for the best solution.
Be sure to not make your topic too broad. It should cover a specific town or area, not the entire world or a country, but does not have to be the particular town or area you live – it can be anywhere in the world. Please stay away from global warming issues. This is an extremely difficult area to narrow down locally and present reasonable solutions. It is simply much too broad for this type of presentation. Recycling is another area to stay clear of as an environmental problem. Recycling can be a solution to a problem, but generally, not the problem itself.
As an example, runoff from a coalmine may be contaminating the groundwater of a nearby town. A solution to abating the contaminated groundwater could be to shut down the coalmine, but at the cost of everyone losing their jobs. A benefit to this solution could be clean drinking water for the community.
There are a host of other costs and benefits associated with the solution to the above example. There are also many alternatives for solutions, none of which would make everyone happy. It is your job to find these costs and benefits for whatever solutions you choose. Then, analyze each solution’s costs and benefits to determine which is the best solution. Remember when considering costs and benefits, they go far beyond dollar values (e.g. loss or gain of jobs, land use, recreation, convenience, public health, habitat loss or gain, pollution, etc.).
Include a slide with the title of your presentation, then 1-2 introduction slides describing the environmental problem. The main body of the presentation should describe the solutions and the costs/benefits to the proposed solution and give recommendations based on your cost/benefit analysis. Be sure to use APA style citations and include a reference slide.
A PowerPoint presentation is really just an outline (with topics, subtopics, and bulleted statements), so it only contains the main points (just like you make an outline when writing a research paper). If you have never used PowerPoint, there are many tutorials on the internet, such as, that explain how to create a presentation. It is better to have a detailed, well-organized and well-written presentation, than a lengthy one that rambles off topic.

Categories
Environmental Science

Learning Goal: I’m working on a environmental science writing question and need

Learning Goal: I’m working on a environmental science writing question and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.
You are to write a 1200 word academic essay-style paper on a local or regional environmental
topic of your choosing. You will describe the problem and present potential solutions. The paper should
be referenced appropriately with a minimum of four academic sources. You may add additional
sources, both academic and non-academic, providing they are properly cited.
TOPIC:
Identify a human-environmental issue of interest to you that fits within the scope of ENV1600. This issue
should be specific: occurring in a specific area or impacting a specific species or resource.
Examples of good, well-scoped topics might include:
• Eutrophication in Lake Winnipeg
• The role of Indigenous peoples in establishing new protected areas in Canada
• The effects of sunscreen on ocean coral
• The impacts of a federal carbon tax on British Columbia’s economy
Examples of poorly-scoped topics might include:
• Global climate change
• Renewable energy • Plastic pollution
• Decline in populations of birds.
please do not use any of the above mentioned examples as your topic for the paper. it is there just to give you an idea of what the right topic would be like.

Categories
Environmental Science

Learning Goal: I’m working on a environmental science writing question and need

Learning Goal: I’m working on a environmental science writing question and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.
You are to write a 1200 word academic essay-style paper on a local or regional environmental
topic of your choosing. You will describe the problem and present potential solutions. The paper should
be referenced appropriately with a minimum of four academic sources. You may add additional
sources, both academic and non-academic, providing they are properly cited.
TOPIC:
Identify a human-environmental issue of interest to you that fits within the scope of ENV1600. This issue
should be specific: occurring in a specific area or impacting a specific species or resource.
Examples of good, well-scoped topics might include:
• Eutrophication in Lake Winnipeg
• The role of Indigenous peoples in establishing new protected areas in Canada
• The effects of sunscreen on ocean coral
• The impacts of a federal carbon tax on British Columbia’s economy
Examples of poorly-scoped topics might include:
• Global climate change
• Renewable energy • Plastic pollution
• Decline in populations of birds.
please do not use any of the above mentioned examples as your topic for the paper. it is there just to give you an idea of what the right topic would be like.

Categories
Environmental Science

What is the approximate current human global population? How many people are being added to the population each day?

read chapter 6 and answer the questions below:
1. What is the approximate current human global population? How many people are being added to the population each day?
2. Why has the human population continued to grow despite
environmental limitations? Give one example of an innovation that increased the carrying capacity for humans. 3. Contrast the views of environmental scientists with those
of economists regarding whether population growth is a
problem. Name several reasons why population growth
is viewed as a problem. 4. Explain the IPAT model. How can technology increase
environmental impact? Provide at least one example.
How can technology decrease environmental impact?
Provide at least one example. 5. How do the size, density, distribution, age structure, and
sex ratio of a population help determine the impact of
human populations on the environment?
6. What is the total fertility rate (TFR)? Why is the replacement fertility for humans approximately 2.1? How is
Europe’s TFR affecting its rate of natural increase?
7. Why have fertility rates fallen in many countries? 8. How does the demographic transition model explain the
increase in population growth rates in recent centuries?
How does it explain the recent decrease in population
growth rates in many countries? 9. Why are the empowerment of women and the pursuit of
gender equality viewed as important to controlling population growth? Describe the aim of family-planning programs. 10. Why do poorer societies have higher population growth
rates than wealthier societies? How does poverty affect the
environment? How does affluence affect the environment?